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1. Institute of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, SS. Cyril and Methodius University,Majka Tereza No 47, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia,
e-mail: biba@ff.ukim.edu.mk
2. Institute of Public Health of Republic of Macedonia, 50 Divizija 6, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia


SCSB, Number 1, Volume XXIII


Volume 23, No. 1 - Vegetal Biology


Canola is a name applied to edible oilseed rape. This plant belongs to the Brassicaceae (mustard) family along with 3,000 other species. Close relatives of this crop have been cultivated for food since the earliest recordings of man. The name "canola" was registered in 1979 by the Western Canadian Oilseed Crushers Association to describe "double-low" varieties. Double low indicates that the processed oil contains less than 2% erucic acid (C22:1). Like soybean, canola contains both high oil content as well as high protein content. It contains about 40% oil and 23% protein compared to 20 and 40%, respectively, for soybean consumption. Commercial varieties of canola were developed from three species: Brassica napus L. (Argentine type), Brassica campestris L. (Polish type) and Brassica juncea L. (canola quality brown mustard). There are considerable differences in agronomic characteristics, yield, and fatty acid (FA) composition of seed oil between species and between varieties. The main objective of this work was identification and determination the FA composition of the seed oil of the two canola varieties grown in the Republic of Macedonia, during 2012. For that purpose, a total of hundred samples of the seeds of the two types of canola varieties were analyzed for the presence of total saturated fatty acid (SFA), total monounsaturated fatty acids (MFA), and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). After the Soxlet extraction of the seeds, methylation of the oil was performed, and fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) were characterized by gas chromatography (GC-FID) on HP-FFAP and SPBTM-1 column, respectively. The results of the study, showed different FA content among the two canola varieties. The canola variety type 2, was found to be high linolenic with the average content of linolenic acid (C18:3) 44.0% ± 2.02 (n=55). The canola variety type 1, was found to be high oleic with the average content of oleic acid (C18:1) 59.5% ± 1.91 (n=45). The average content of erucic acid (C22:1) was below 0.2% in the both varieties. The canola variety type 1 contained lower mean value of the total SFA (9.6% ± 0.56) in comparison with canola variety type 2, which had higher mean value of the total SFA (17.4% ± 0.67). The canola variety type 1, had higher content of the total MUFA (59.5% ± 1.91), unlike the canola variety type 2 (23.2% ±2.9). Besides the differences in the FA composition, as well as, the total SFA, MUFA, and the PUFA content, the both canola varieties had similar values of polyunsaturated/saturated indexes (P/S), which were found to be 3.2, and 3.4, respectively. This means that the both varieties of the oil had the same nutritional value.


Canola, fatty acid, gas chromatography, polyunsaturated / saturated index.

Code [ID]:

SCSB201401V23S01A0013 [0004123]

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